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全面介绍SAT阅读修辞的种类

2016-02-24 09:10:00  来源:  【
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SAT考试成绩,或和其具有同等效力的ACT考试(American College Test)成绩,在申请美国大部分大学时都是必须提供的。修辞题是SAT阅读中常见的考点。今天就为大家全面介绍一下SAT阅读涉及到的各种类别的修辞手法,像明喻、拟人、类比、反语和双关等修辞。大家在备考SAT阅读的时候,可以有针对性地进行复习。

simile 明喻

metaphor 隐喻, 暗喻

metonymy 转喻

personification 拟人

onomatopoeia 拟声

analogy 类比

antithesis 对照

sarcasm 讽刺

innuendo 暗讽

irony 反语

Pun / Wordplay 双关语

oxymoron 矛盾修饰

paradox 似非而是的论点, 悖论

epigram 警句, 隽语

alliteration 头韵 (在一句话中采用连续几个词相同首字母或声韵的技巧)

apostrophe 顿呼(在文章或演说中用第二人称称呼在场或不在场的人或拟人的事物)

anti-climax / bathos 突降 (在写作或说话中从庄重到平淡内容的突然转变)

climax 渐进/顶点 (逐层加强词义的渐进法)

syllepsis 一语双叙

zeugma 轭式搭配

transferred Epithet 转类形容词

Understatement:陈述

定义:A figure of speech which contains an understatement of emphasis, and therefore the opposite of hyperbole. Often used in everyday speech and usually with laconic or ironic intentions.

这种修辞格是故意使用有节制的措辞来陈述事实,故意轻描淡写,借低调与弱化语言形式来表示强调。

例子:1.I know he is honest, and I wish I could add he were capable.

我知道他是诚实的,我还希望我能说他是能干的。

此句也是用虚拟语气来体现understatement,I could add he were capable其实是在说“但他不够能干”。

2.The face wasn’t a bad one; it had what they called charm.

面孔不算难看,有一般人所称的妩媚。

此句不是冲淡她的魅力,而是采用低调渲染,意即The face was sweet; her charm conquered everybody. 明似贬抑,实则褒扬.

simile:明喻

定义:A figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared.

明喻是一种修辞手法,把两种基本不相像的东西进行比较.

例子:1.He is something of a political chameleon.他有点象政治上的变色龙

2.He looked as if he had just stepped out of my book of fairytales and had passed me like a spirit.

他看上去好像刚从我的童话故事书中走出来,像幽灵一样从我身旁走过去。

metaphor:隐喻

定义:A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison.

用一个词来指代与该词所指事物有相似特点的另外一个事物

例子:1.He has a heart of stone. 他有一颗铁石心肠

2.The diamond department was the heart and center of the store.

钻石部是商店的心脏和核心。

Synecdoche:提喻

定义:又称举隅法,主要特点是局部代表全体,或以全体喻指部分,或以抽象代具体,或以具体代抽象。例如:

1、The Great Wall was made not only of stones and earth, but of the flesh and blood of millions of men.

长城不仅是用石头和土建造的,而且是用几百万人的血和肉建成的。

句中的“the flesh and blood”喻为“the great sacrifice”(巨大的牺牲)

2、“...saying that it was the most beautiful tongue in the world,...”

……他说这是世界上最美的语言。

这里用具体的“tongue”代替抽象的“language”。

4、Many eyes turned to a tall,20—year black girl on the U.S. team.

很多人将眼光投向美国队一个高高的20岁的黑姑娘。

这里的“many eyes”代替了“many persons”。

sarcasm:讽刺

定义:It attacks in a taunting and bitter manner, and its aim is to disparage ,ridicule and wound the feelings of the subject attacked

例子:1.Laws are like cobwebs, which may catch small flies ,but let wasps break through

法律就像是蜘蛛网,只能抓住小飞虫,轻易让大黄蜂一冲即破。

2.Behind every successful man, there is a woman. And behind every , unsuccessful man , there are two.

每个成功男人的背后,都有一个女人. 每个不成功男人的背后, 都有两个.

rhetorical question:反问句

定义:a statement that is formulated as a question but that is not supposed to be answered a question to which no answer is required: used it for dramatic or emphasis effect

设立一个不需要回答的问题,以起到戏剧或者强调的效果

例子:1.Did you help me when I needed help?

在我需要的时候,你帮助过我吗?

2.Did you once offer to intercede in my behalf?

你曾经理解支持过我吗?

Pun:双关语

定义:The use of a word in such a way as to suggest two or more meanings or different associations, or the use of two or more words of the same or nearly the same sound with different meanings, so as to produce a humorous effect.

用一个词去暗示两种或两种以上的意义或引起不同的联想,或者用两个或两个以上发音相同或相近而意义不同的词,以产生一种幽默效果。)

例子:1.Mother: Your hair needs cutting badly.

Daughter: I think it needs cutting nicely, it was cut badly last time .

(badly: a. 非常; b. 坏)

2.Judge: Tell me why you parked there.

Driver: Because, Your Honor, it said “Fine for Parking”

(fine: a. 好的; b. 罚款)

oxymoron:矛盾的修辞

定义:A rhetorical figure in which incongruous or contradictory terms are combined

在修辞中使用不协调或前后矛盾的方法

例子:1.The coach had to be cruel to be kind to his trainees.

教练为了对他的受训者仁慈就要对他们残酷

2.She read the long-awaited letter with a tearful smile.

她带着含泪的微笑读那封盼望已久的信

hyperbole:夸张

定义:A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect

通过夸张的描述达到某种修辞效果,

例子:1.My heart almost stopped beating when I heard my girl friend’s voice on the phone.

从电话里听到我女朋友的声音,我的心几乎停止跳动。

2.She gave me the impression of having more teeth, white and large and even, than were necessary for any practical purpose.

她给我的印象是:她有一口洁白整齐的大牙,为数之多已超过任何实际需要

Synesthesia:通感

定义:是指在某个感官所产生的感觉,转到另一个感官的心理感受。

例子:Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested.

有些书是应当尝尝滋味的,有些书是应吞下去的,有少数书是应当咀嚼和消化的。

理解:书是“尝”不出味道的,也是不能“吃”下去将其“消化”掉的。这里把读书中的精读和泛读,阅读欣赏与吸收知识的感受,用味觉功能和消化功能来表示,心理感受是如此逼真和奇特。

rhetorical repetition:重复

定义:在特定的语境中,将相同的结构,相同意义词组成句子重叠使用,以增强语气和力量。

例子:1、It must be created by the blood and the work of all of us who believe in the future, who believe in man and his glorious man—made destiny.

它必须用我们这些对于未来,对于人类以及人类自己创造的伟大命运具有信心的人的鲜血和汗水去创造。

2、 Because good technique in medicine and surgery means more quickly—cured patients, less pain, less discomfort, less death, less disease and less deformity.

因为优良的医疗技术和外科手术意味着更快地治疗病人,更少痛苦,更少不安,更少死亡,更少疾病,和更少残废。

Metonymy:借代

定义:指两种不同事物并不相似,但又密不可分,因而常用其中一种事物名称代替另一种。

例子:1、Several years later, word came that Napoleonyh himself was coming to inspect them.

几年以后,他们听说拿破仑要亲自来视察他们。

“word”在这里代替了“news, information”(消息、信息)

2、Al spoke with his eyes,“yes”. 艾尔用眼睛说,“是的”。

“说”应该是嘴的功能,这里实际上是用眼神表达了“说话的意思”。

Onomatcpocia:拟声

定义:是指摹仿自然界中非语言的声音,其发音和所描写的事物的声音很相似,使语言显得生动,富有表现力。

例子:1、On the root of the school house some pigeons were softly cooing.

在学校房屋的屋顶上一些鸽子正轻轻地咕咕叫着。

2、She brought me into touch with everything that could be reached or felt——sunlight, the rustling of silk, the noises of insects, the creaking of a door, the voice of a loved one.

她使我接触到所有够得着的或者感觉得到的东西,如阳光呀,丝绸摆动时的沙沙声呀,昆虫的叫声呀,开门的吱嗄声呀,亲人的说话声呀。

Alliteration:头韵法

定义:在文句中有两个以上连结在一起的词或词组,其开头的音节有同样的字母或声音,以增强语言的节奏感.

例子:How and why he had come to Princeton, New Jersey is a story of struggle, success, and sadness.

上面就是对SAT阅读修辞的种类的汇总介绍,希望对大家有帮助。

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