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  One’s style of the dress reveals the human obsession with both novelty and tradition. People use clothing to declare their membership in a particular social group; however, the rules for what is acceptable dress for that group may change. In affluent societies, this changing of the rules is the driving force behind fashions. By keeping up with fashions, that is, by changing their clothing style frequently but simultaneously, members of a group both satisfy their desire for novelty and obey the rules, thus demonstrating their membership in the group.

  There are some interesting variations regarding individual status. Some people, particularly in the West, consider themselves of such high status that they do not need to display it with their clothing. For example, many wealthy people in the entertainment industry appear in very casual clothes, such as the worn jeans and work boots of a manual laborer. However, it is likely that a subtle but important signal, such as an expensive wristwatch, will prevail over the message of the casual dress. Such an inverted status display is most likely to occur where the person’s high status is conveyed in ways other than with clothing, such as having a famous face.

  1.According to the author, fashions serve all the following purposes EXCEPT

  A.satisfying an interest in novelty

  B.signaling a change in personal beliefs

  C.displaying membership in a social group

  D.following traditional rules

  2.Why does the author discuss individual status in paragraph 2?

  A.To state that individuals status is not important in the West

  B.To argue that individuals need not obey every fashion rule

  C.To contrast the status of entertainers with that of manual laborers

  D.To explain how high status may involve an inverted status display


  The war for independence from Britain was a long and economically costly conflict. The New England fishing industry was temporarily destroyed, and the tobacco colonies in the South were also hard hit. The trade in imports was severely affected, since the war was fought against the country that had previously monopolized the colonies’ supply of manufactured goods. The most serious consequences were felt in the cities, whose existence depended on commercial activity. Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston were all occupied for a time by British troops. Even when the troops had left, British ships lurked in the harbors and continued to disrupt trade.

  American income from shipbuilding and commerce declined abruptly, undermining the entire economy of the urban areas. The decline in trade brought a fall in the American standard of living. Unemployed shipwrights, dock laborers, and coopers drifted off to find work on farms and in small villages. Some of them joined the Continental army, or if they were loyal to Britain, they departed with the British forces. The population of the New York City declined from 21,000 in 1774 to less than half that number only nine years later in 1783.

  The disruptions produced by the fighting of the war, by the loss of established markets for manufactured goods, by the loss of sources of credit, and by the lack of new investment all created a period of economic stagnation that lasted for the next twenty years.

  3.Why does the author mention the fishing industry and the tobacoo colonies?

  A. to show how the war for independence affected the economy

  B. to compare the economic power of two different regions

  C. to identify the two largest commercial enterprises in America

  D. to give examples of industries controlled by British forces

  4. Why does the author mention the population of New York City in paragraph 2?

  A. to show that half of New York remained loyal to Britain

  B. to compare New York with other cities occupied during the war

  C. to emphasize the great short-term cost of the war for New York

  D. to illustrate the percentage of homeless people in New York

答题区
1. 2. 3. 4.